Private Practice

October 2008 – October 2013

Director, Special Investigations Unit, Ontario

January 2006 – September 2008

General Counsel Ministry of the Attorney General, Toronto

September 2001 – January 2006

Crown Counsel Crown Law Office- Criminal Ministry of the Attorney General, Toronto

December 1997 – September 2001

Barrister & Solicitor, Toronto Criminal and administrative law

June 1994 – November 1997

Chief Counsel- Justice Prosecutions Crown Law Office- Criminal Ministry of the Attorney General, Toronto

March 1985 – March 1990

Assistant Crown Attorney Judicial District of York, Toronto

August 1984 – March 1985

Litigation Lawyer
Stikeman, Elliott, Toronto

1983 – 1984

Law Clerk to the Chief Justice of the High Court of Ontario Osgoode Hall, Toronto



Called to the Ontario Bar


LL.B. University of Western Ontario


Honours B.A. University of Toronto


  • Investigations Counsel for the Ontario Judicial Council and the Justices of the Peace Review Council

  • Adjunct professor at Western Law School

  • Alternate Chairperson of the Ontario Review Board

  • Speaker for the Workplace Institute

  • Member of Lambton Tennis Club

  • Former president of the Canadian Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement (2011-2012)


  • (with J. Martino) Salhany’s Police Manual of Arrest, Seizure & Interrogation (11th ed.), Reuters Thomson, 2014

  • Issues in Civilian Oversight of Policing in Canada, Canada Law Book, 2014

  • Police Services Act of Ontario: An Annotated Guide, (3rd Ed) Canada Law Book (2014) 

  • Reforming Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit (2013), 60 Criminal Law Quarterly 210

  • Legal Framework of Use of Force by Police in Ontario (2008), 53 Criminal Law Quarterly 331 translated into Chinese and published in(2010), 4Journal of National Prosecutors College, Vol 18, p. 188

  • Crown Crib Sheet for Rebutting Defence of Non-mental Disorder Automatism- Paper presented to Crown Law Office- Criminal Office Meeting, October 20, 2006

  • Limits on Crown Cross-Examination of the Accused – Paper prepared for 30th Annual Institute of CLE, Ontario Bar Association Criminal Law Section – February 5th, 2005

  • Addressing Police Excessive Use of Force- A Proposal to Amend the Mandate of the Special Investigations Unit (2004), 49 Criminal Law Quarterly 351

  • Taking Statements from Police Officers Suspected of Criminal Misconduct: A Proposed Protocol (2004), 49 Criminal Law Quarterly 166

  • To Plead or Not to Plead- Implications of a Criminal Record under the Police Services Act Disciplinary Regime, University Education Program Materials, Ontario Court of Justice, June 2003

  • Can Documents Smoke? An Inquiry into the Relationship between the R. v. Murray decision and Documents characterised as Evidence of Crime (2003), 47 Criminal Law Quarterly 157

  • Subpoenas and Medical Records, The Canadian Medical Legal Conference Papers and Abstracts, Interactive Learning Continuum, June 1997

  • Calder – The Charter Trumps the Truth Seeking Tool of Impeaching the Accused with a Prior Inconsistent Statement (1996), 46 C.R. (4th) 161


  • Conducting Investigations and Interviewing Witnesses, Workplace Institute, Winnipeg MANITOBA, June 2016

  • Fundamentals of Investigations and Interviewing Training, Workplace Institute, Toronto ON, May 2016

  • What Happens After a Verdict of ‘Not Criminally Responsible’, CACOLE Annual Conference, Saskatoon SASK, May 2016

  • Civilian Oversight of Policing in Canada, Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy, New Delhi INDIA, April 2016

  • Appellate Decisions on Oversight Issues from Three Jurisdictions, Police Complaints Authority, Port-au-Spain, TRINIDAD, March 2016

  • Civilian Oversight of Policing, Open Society Foundation, Tiblisi GEORGIA, February 2016

  • Prosecuting Police Disciplinary Cases, 13th Prosecutors and Adjudicators Conference, Orillia ON, November 2015

  • Fundamentals of Investigations Training, Workplace Institute, Guelph, ON, September 2015

  • Effective Models of Independent Investigation of Torture and Ill-Treatment, Open Society Foundation, Yerevan ARMENIA, May 2015

  • The SIU in Ontario, sommet interdisciplinaire sur l’usage de la force, Nicolet QC, April 2015

  • Body Worn Cameras, Canadian Civil Liberties Association Panel Discussion, Toronto ON, March 2015

  • Prosecuting Police Disciplinary Cases, 12th Prosecutors and Adjudicators Conference, Orillia ON, November 2014

  • Use of Force by Police, CACOLE Annual Conference, Victoria BC, May 2014

  • Police Oversight in Ontario, Preventing Torture: Investigation, Accountability, Monitoring; an event organized by the Open Society Justice Initiative, Coalition Against Torture and the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Bishkek KYRGYZSTAN, April 2014

  • Reforming Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit, Keynote Speaker, Self-Defence and Use of Force Conference, Toronto ON, March 2014

  • Automatism and Toxic Psychosis, National Symposium of Mental Disorder and Criminal Justice, Toronto ON, February 2014

  • Policing the Police, Western Alumni Talk, Toronto ON, November 2013

  • Prosecuting Police Disciplinary Cases, 11th Prosecutors and Adjudicators Conference, Orillia ON, November 2013

  • Reforming Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit, Keynote Speaker, Association of Law Officers of the Crown Annual Conference, Niagara-on-the-Lake ON, November 2013

  • What’s New at the SIU, Law of Policing Conference, Toronto ON, September 2013

  • Improving the Independence & Effectiveness of Ontario’s Special Investigations Unit, CACOLE Annual Conference, Charlottetown PEI, May 2013

  • SIU Components­, Professional Standards and SIU Conference hosted by the OACP, Toronto ON, October 2012

  • Civilian Oversight of the Police in Ontario, Venezuelan National Conference of the General Council of Police, Caracas VENEZUELA, September 2012

  • Police Officers’ Duty to Co-operate in Light of the Schaeffer Decision, CACOLE Annual Conference, Toronto ON, May 2012

  • Police Oversight Issues- What’s Ahead?, Ontario Association of Police Services Boards, Ottawa ON, April 2012

  • Presentation on the SIU to Vietnamese Judicial Committee Delegation, Toronto ON, December 2011

  • Intersection of Administrative Tribunal and Criminal Investigations involving Police Misconduct, CACOLE Annual Conference, Canmore AB, June 2011

  • G20 and Civilian Oversight of Policing, Law Union of Ontario Annual Conference, Toronto ON, February 2011

  • Police Officers’ Notes and Police Association Lawyers, CACOLE Annual Conference, Fredericton NB, June 2010

  • Current Issues at the Ontario Special Investigations Unit, Law of Policing Conference, Toronto ON, June 2010

  • Investigating Complaints against Police: Models, Options and Issues, David and Cecilia Ting Forum on Justice Police, Vancouver BC, November 2009

  • What’s New at the SIU?, Police Employment Conference, Toronto ON, February 2009

  • Prosecuting at Police Services Act Hearings, Adjudication and Prosecution Seminar, Orillia ON, December 2008

  • Investigating Police Misconduct, Professional Standards Investigators Course, Orillia ON, October 2008

  • Presenting a Fraud Case, Law Society of Upper Canada White Collar Crime Conference, Toronto ON, March 2008

  • Managing Serious Police Misconduct Issues- 4th Annual Police Adjudicators and Prosecutors Course, Orillia ON, December 2006

  • The “Art” & Limits of Cross-Examination in a Sex Crime Trial,Ontario Bar Association, Toronto ON, February 2005

  • Relationship between Civilian Oversight and Community Interests, CACOLE Annual Conference, Toronto ON, June 2004

  • Lawyers in the Dock, International Bar Association Conference, San Francisco CA, September 2003

  • Police and the Courts: How We See Each Other, University Education Program, Ontario Court of Justice Judges, London ON, June 2003

  • Television talk show on lawyers’ ethics with Alan Dershowitz, on Open for Discussion, Toronto ON, December 2002

  • Evidence & Ethics since R. v. Murray, Advocates Society’s Conference, Miami FL, November 2000

  • Search of Law Offices and Turning the Client In, Toronto Lawyers Association, Toronto ON, January 2000